So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.” ~F. Scott Fitzgerald


why don't we learn from history?

Why do great enterprises fail?  Two reasons: Arrogance and Ignorance

WWI - planned for decades - for a single track

Hitler's Stalingrad


and, most certainly, the Spanish Armada

Unenlightened Shadows Cast

The kingdom of Philip the Second of Spain covered a larger land mass than any governed body in history. But it was incomplete.  Pope Sixtus, outraged at the Protestant movement, wanted the likes of Germany, Netherlands and England back in the Catholic fold.  He demanded an "English Enterprise" that would take the whole of the British Isles back into the arms of the church,  From there, the rest of Europe.


Second Thoughts - Cristobal can't turn back

Second Thoughts - The Duke begs the king to think again

Dreams of a big life

The English Enterprise - Strategic Decisions - The king's reply

Strategic Advantage

Cristobal the sailor

Maria and the village - two men's work - Rita



Mary Queen of Scots: Knight's Pawn

Drake's First Strike

Boats against the current

Disease home and away


First action

Fire ships

Speech at Tilbury

The long way around

The northern islands

The Irish coast - 

Holding on